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Fruit trees: Pear tree

Fruit trees: Pear tree


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Generality

The pear belongs to the Rosaceae family, subfamily of the Pomoideae, genus Pyrus. Origin discussed: western species, the main Pyrus Communis, and eastern species in which there are greater resistances, even to bacterial fire, are distinguished; Pyrus pyrifolia belonging to the latter is used in China. Regarding biology, however, self-incompatibility is often found, caused by both factorial and morphological and cytological infertility; as in the apple tree there are triploid cvs that can give anomalies. Peculiarity of the pear tree is the production via parthenocarpic present in numerous cv, however it is always preferable to resort to good pollinating cv.
Pollination is obviously entomophilic however the flower is not very attractive and it is preferred to put more hives.
Pedoclimatic limits: the main is the resistance to limestone, especially with the quince rootstock; other limits are constituted by the resistance to cold mainly and to drought (always with the quince that has a superficial root system), some problems arise in cases of nutritional deficiencies.
The pear tree is a vigorous tree, pyramidal in shape in the early years and tending to be globular in mutuality, which can reach a height of 15-18 m.
The pear tree has wood and mixed buds carried by different fruiting branches, i.e. darts, lamburde, brindilli and mixed branches. The fruit is a fake fruit called a pommel.

Pear tree flowers

Varieties and rootstocks

Among the CVs, for which reference is made to the Variety Orientation Lists for a careful selection, we mention:
Etrusca, Coscia, Santa Maria, William, Highland, Conference, Abate fetel, Harrow sweet, resistant to bacterial fire, Dean of the meeting, Kaiser and Passacrassana. Among the aforementioned there are the most used ones to which are added also the early Morettini Butirra, the William Rossa, quite common.
For rootstocks, the francs are distinguished, such as Franco comune, Fox and Farrold, resistant to OHF, and the selections of quince, such as Ba29, EMC, EMA, Sydo and Adams; the latter are poorly suited to drought and limestone soils, except the former.
Propagation: seed, layering, offshoot, they give the rootstocks and the grafting is a widespread practice but with some cases of disaffinity; little-used micropropagation.

Variety of Pears (Pears of Emilia-Romagna PGI)

Cultivation technique

It is a rather plastic plant in the forms of breeding although it should be borne in mind that the production passes from the brindelli and mixed branches the first years, to the lamburde. Evolution of the forms of cultivation in the pear tree has gone from volume forms such as the pot to the palmette (sixth 3.5 x 2 m), anticipated and irregular, to the spindle (sixth 4 x 1 m) then a main axis with branchlets of exploitation; with the vertical cord and the V-shape, densities of 4,000-5,000 plants / ha are reached.
Irrigation in the pear tree is fundamental, but it is good to avoid high water availability during intense vegetative growth and post-harvest, while attention to the lack of pre and post flowering followed by water stress phenomena. The micro-flow system is always preferable.
Fertilization: as a rule, it is mandatory to carry out soil and foliar analysis to highlight the deficiencies. Fundamental elements are N, K, Ca, secondly P and Mg; sometimes even Bo and Fe are to be taken into account.
As far as pruning is concerned, we must always consider where we want production; in general it is good to thin out and thin out the branches but do not shorten them as we are on a pomaceous fruit, they will forward part of those that have already fruited eliminated; it is always preferred to carry out bending rather than cutting. Green pruning is important especially in breeding. The pear tree is the species that adapts very well to mechanical pruning. Thinning is to be done after the June drop.

Productions

The harvest runs from June to October. The appropriate moment is chosen by means of collection indexes such as the color of peel or pulp, the hardness of the pulp, the resistance to detachment and others. The worker efficiency is around 50-80 kg for volume shapes compared to 60-180 kg for flattened shapes. As far as conservation is concerned, the techniques are normal atmosphere or controlled atmosphere; storage takes place at low temperatures just below 0 ° C, it is similar to that for apples even if pears are more sensitive to CO2 and therefore the ULO method (ultra low oxygen) is good.

Adversity

Damage of abiotic origin such as weather agents, deficiencies (Bo and Fe), post-harvest phytopathies including heating must be taken into account. Important are mycoplasmosis, phytoplasmosis with curling up, bacteriosis such as the bacterial fire stroke (OHF); among the mycoses we remember the cancer of the stone fruit and the scab. In insects we find lepidoptera such as carpocapsa (Cydia pomonella), rodilegno, moth, many aphids and among others there is the cochineal of San Josè (Quadrapsidiotus pernicosus).


Video: pear tree in uk garden (June 2022).